THE HISTORY OF FREEDOMPRIVATE


 

     The age of the earth is 4.5 billion years old. Comparing to that, human life started only on the last few moments, as the result of slow evolutionary adaptation.

     human being have passed five different formations so far.     1-Primitive Common. 2-Slavery . 3-feudalism. 4-Capitalism.       5-socialism.

Slavery

     There were two main classes of people in the slavery system. Slaves and the Slave owners.In this society freedom was only for the slave owners. They were absolutely free, to buy, sell, torture, and even kill the slaves, or have sex with them. Slaves have to work for the slave owners, and could eat only as much as they needed to stay alive. Sometimes they would not get enough food, and as the result of this, plenty of them would die. They could not get married or move from their place without the owner's permission. The salve was the property of his owner, like our car and house. Owners would sell them, and buy them with the land. They were a part of the land, and were used as the tools. They could not get anything or even make decisions for their families. The slave owner could beat, lash, punish,or even throwing them into the wells by their heads.  No slave could run away from his owner, because they were branded by their owner, and if any one attempted to do so, they would be easily arrested and returned to their owners. The slave was recognized by his mark. The powerful slaves were being used as Gladiator, to fight with other Gladiator or with the wild animals in front of the Emperors or the Kings. It was for the mere pleasure, only of the kings, and the slave owners.  

     In one word, slaves were created to work for the owners. to give them pleasure and to protect them in their life, or death, building the Palaces, or tombs. Perspolis (in Iran) is one of the symbols of these Palaces. Egypt  Pyramids are the symbols of those tombs. The China wall is one symbol of the Emperor's protection.

     Most of the scientists, and Philosophers were under the influence of the slave owners, and were supporting them. Even Plato, who was one of the greatest of all the Philosophers said "Some people are created for ruling the others, and some are created to be of service to the others". He said also "Slaves have not the right to interfere with the politics.  The society is made up of five different classes. 1-Slaves. 2-Artisans. 3-Warlikes. 4-Clergymen. 5-Philosophers. Each one has his own duty to attend to".

     There were some movement, and raising against the owners. The biggest ones was Spartakoos (in Rome), and Hallaj ( in Iran).

 

FREEDOM IN FEUDALISM

     In the Feudalism system there were two main classes of people, Farmers and Landowners.

     Farmers were the majority of the people who were working on the farms, but didn't own the land. They were working, and cultivating the lands but they could only own a little bit of their production. Land owners were not doing anything, but they owned most of the lands. They were collecting three kinds of taxes from the farmers. 1-Money. 2- Goods, or Commodities. 3-forced Labor. It was depends on the time , and place (which kind of the tax the farmers have to pay).

     Comparing with the Slavery system and the Slaves, the farmers had an indeed more freedom. They could have a few cows, sheep and also a little bit of the land.  They could choose their own family and they could choose their spouses. They could even move and choose a new landowner.

     Landowners could neither  lash them nor kill them or brand them. They were some kinds of punishment, such as forcing them to pay more taxes or work harder and more, even they could take away the land from them.

     There were several raising and movement in this formation also. Marriages were mostly arranged ones. Love marriages rarely occurred, and that is why most of the Historical love stories happened and were written during this period of time.

     Religion: One God religions such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Zorasterian showed up in this period, and they were the result of developing, and advancing of the people's knowledge. Religious wars in Europe and the attack of Arabs (Islam) to Iran took place during this time too.

     Wars: Mostly the wars were under the name of God, and were led by churches, mosques, or kings who were under the influence of one. One of the famous writers says "These wars were between two group of people who din not know each other, and did not hate each other, for two persons or two groups or two religions who did know each other, and hated one another. If they gained the victory, this victory was won for the king, Church, or the Mosque. If they were defeated then people would die, and nothing would happen to those kings, Priests or Mullahs, because they were not participating in the wars". People were scared of hell, and were expecting to go to heaven, after death. It was another reason for them to participate the wars too.

 

FREEDOM IN CAPITALISM

     Industrial Revolution not only changed the face of the Earth, but also brought a lot of facilities for people to obtain more freedom.  Women were mostly working at home as the house wives. Capitalism brought this opportunity for them to come out, and work in the factories. It was not for women sake, but because Capitalism wanted to exploit not only men, but women, and children too, and make more money for the Capitalist persons. They could pay women, and children less than men.

      Capitalism needed more technicians, and skilled people; therefore it brought more developed eduction. This was a necessity of Capitalism. As the result of Advanced Technology people could save time, and study more. As they study more they became more familiar with their rights; especially women.

     In Pre-Capitalism societies, the production was produced in small places, and it was scattered. Capitalism brought this opportunity for mass of workers, to work under one ceiling  together. So now they could make their own unions, organizations, syndicates and movements, They could exchange their experiences too.  Women's movement, and Socialist movements were the two main results of concentrated production, in Capitalist.

     In Pre-Capitalism societies a limited percentage of the people could study (only the upper-class families). In Capitalism literacy grew up from 5% to 10%, to 70%, 80% or somewhere even 100% .

     Gradually, and step by step women could participate in other jobs, such as teaching, nursing, offices, etc.  They could obtain more, and more of their trampled rights, and finally they could demand their Equal right.

     Comparing to the previous societies so far Capitalism is the best. People can choose their own ideas, religions, and jobs. They can read, write, and speak about their own Ideas. They can vote, and elect their representatives. They are able to have their own groups, parties, organizations, and syndicates. But nevertheless there are some negative points.  It is still not the Ideal society for human beings. There are still discriminations, exploitations, and humiliations. Capitalists people don't care about the human life and human values. They take advantage of technology and industry. Millions of people are dying of hunger, in other part of the world, and Capitalist people mostly don't care. Some times they throw away the ships of the food to the sea, for not breaking their prices.

     Males were, and still are ruling, and dominating the societies (with a few exception), but since the beginning of the 20th century they are gradually losing their previous extra power, and authority.

     Public Libraries developed everywhere.Students of this era know more than the teachers of the previous societies. Regarding that Bacon says, " In the seventeenth century there were a lot of students who knew more than Aristotle and knew better than him ".

     By the end of the 19th century Capitalist countries  (Governments) divided the rest of the world. There was not any land or country that was not under the colony of Capitalist ruling Countries.

     The main reason for the first and the second world wars was dividing, and redividing the Colonies. Britain was the biggest Monopolist until the second world war. After the second world war England gradually lost it's colonies, and the U.S. regained it's position. The reason is, because  U.S.  did not attend the war until the last moment, and did not spend as much money and facilities as other Capitalist Countries did. On the other hand other Capitalist Countries had to barrow a lot of money from the U.S. with high interest.

     The monopolists did steal, and plundered the most precious, and valuable things from their Colonies. The biggest oil refinery was built in Iran, because they needed the persian Golf's oil.while Iranian people were still harvesting with scythe and hand.  Millions of dollars were spend in African mountains to make the roads to the Gold Mines, while African people were, and still are dying  of hunger. Of course with this money they could save those people's lives.

     Religion: In Capitalism, in addition to appearance of new Ideologies, thoughts, and schools such as Existentialism, Socialism, Marxism, and so on, that they have their own followers, and believers, religions also could change their faces.  They mostly could adapt themselves with the new situations, and could play a new role, especially protestantism, and Christianity. In Feudalism Priests or Mullahs were the Mediators or the Agents of the God. But in the new society, people felt that they don't need the agent or mediator. They can talk straight to their God. (the ones who believe in God).They don't have to pay the mediators to forgive their sins. The priests also had to change themselves so as to not be so strict.

     There are still some societies that are living in the feudalism formation, with the same culture (mostly in Africa and Asia). Some of them are effected by the industrial revolution, and having some symbols of that. But mentally and culturally, they are carrying their previous ideas or some of that.            

FREEDOM IN SOCIALISM             

     Socialism was one of the biggest labour movements in the 19th century. Karl Marx, and Fred Ritch Engels were the leaders, and the founders of this ideology. Later on Veladimir Ilitch Lenin led the October Revolution in 1917 in Russia, during the first world war, and established the first socialist Government.

     The mottos of the socialists were,  1-Freedom, for the workers, farmers, and soldiers who were the majority of population.  2-To end up the exploitation of the man by man.    3-Equality, and equal rights for people especially equal right of women and men.  4-Creating an advanced, and progressed Country for humanity.

     It was a good hope for the poor people and almost majority of the society's population.  It didn't believe any kind of discrimination, between sexes, races, religions, and nationalities.  It was an ideal society, if it could have happened in the real life.  Actually it did decrease the exploitation, and increased the women's rights, comparing to the other systems. But like most of the other revolutions, the revolution ate its children.

     In my Idea one of the main reasons that socialism could not be succeed was Joseph Stalin.  Stalin killed millions of U.S.S.R. people, including Communists who were opposing him. Also a lot of communists from other countries.  Dictatorship came back again during Stalin's time to U.S.S.R..   In Kampuchea the Polpot regime killed almost a quarter of the population, in the name of Socialism, and workers' Government.  Nicholai Chaochesco built the biggest palace for himself in Romania.

     On the other hand standard of the living did not go up,  as much as the  Capitalism countries.  They could not make a progressed and advanced society.  Their computer and Technology  is far behind the Capitalist countries too.

     Socialist revolutions (according to Karl Mark) Should have happened in the Capitalist Countries, but it mostly happened in the pre-capitalist countries.  Maybe this is one of the main reasons that they couldn't make a good, democratic, advanced and progressed society. Because they didn't have any experience of freedom, and democracy, like what capitalist societies almost have.

      In spite of this negative points, and defeat of so called socialist, and communist parties, and Governments, Socialist still is a big hope for the a lot of people. Especially in the third world Countries.